Visceral pain is a complex heterogeneous disease that causes severe mental and economic burdens on patients. By searching, summarizing and collating the literature on the central-peripheral mechanisms of acupuncture treatment of visceral pain in the past 10 years. The results showed that the central structures involved in the regulation of visceral pain include dorsal root ganglion, dorsal horn of spinal cord, nucleus tractus solitarius, thalamus, reticular ganglion of brainstem, and cerebral cortex. Meanwhile, serotonin, central opioid peptide, gastrin, corticotropin, purine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine also participated in the regulation of acupuncture on visceral pain. With the development of neuroimaging technology, acupuncture has also been gradually recognized by affecting cerebral glucose metabolism and cerebral function activity to regulate visceral pain. The author believes that the mechanism of acupuncture treatment of visceral pain is multi-channel. By summarizing the existing literature, we hope to provide a reference for the acupuncture treatment and research of visceral pain.