The five viscera are the core of the theory of Zang Xiang of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and an important part of the theoretical system of TCM. In this paper, the theoretical research literature on five viscera in recent years is sorted out and the research status is analyzed. Through analyzing related literature, found that the scholars have conducted a lot of research work in the field of theory research, both from the perspective of overall involves the theory of five viscera related genealogical, comparison of ancient and modern, origin, evolution and characteristics of the historical stages of research, and there were five viscera theory the concrete connotation of the concept of depth. But still need to further strengthen to carry out deep research of the internal structure of five viscera theory of TCM, especially to solve today"s five viscera theory construction lags behind the clinical practice and scientific research status the central issue of study. It is necessary to make a deep rational refinement and summarization as well as a summary of the inherent laws to meet the need of inheritance, innovation and development of the theoretical system of TCM in the new era.