Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is a fast qualitative and quantitative multi-element analytical technology, which uses a high power laser pulse to ablate a target and generate laser induced plasma. The emission line emitted from the plasma is used as a spectral characteristic for identifying the presence of characteristic elements in a sample. The spectroscopy provides information on elemental compositions, regardless its state of matter (solid, liquid, gas and aerosol). As a green elemental microanalysis, LIBS has merits of minimal sample preparation, no or little sample damage, in situ and even remote detection. Thus, it has been applied in several domains and confirmed its high utility in fast qualitative and quantitative analysis of diverse elements. With the gradual development of relevant scientific theories, it has become a promising analytical detection tool in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The article resumed the LIBS basic theory and reviewed the application and development of LIBS in element analysis, provenance discrimination, authenticity and adulteration, heavy mental detection and production process control of TCM. LIBS, a promising multi-element analytical technology, can become an important means of quality evaluation of TCM.