目的 研究人参抗化疗所致恶心呕吐（CINV）的药效物质基础。方法 采用大鼠异嗜高岭土模型探究人参抗CINV作用，观察人参水提液及其制备的不同极性组分（醇沉组分、水洗脱组分、60%乙醇洗脱组分、90%乙醇洗脱组分）对高岭土和食物的摄入量，建立各化学组分HPLC指纹图谱，分析药效学指标与指纹图谱中色谱峰面积的相关性，初步判定人参抗CINV的药效物质基础。结果 人参水提液和60%乙醇洗脱组分可显著减少模型大鼠高岭土的摄食量，与模型对照组比有显著性差异（P ≤ 0.01）；醇沉组分、水洗脱组分、90%乙醇洗脱组分无显著性差异（P > 0.05）。谱-效相关性分析表明，人参抗CINV的物质基础可能与色谱峰X1、X3、X4、X5、X6、X7、X8、X9、X10、X11相关。结论 人参水提液的抗CINV活性部分初步判定为经大孔吸附树脂纯化的60%乙醇洗脱组分；其抗CINV的活性物质可能与包括人参皂苷Rg1、Re、Rb1在内的10个化学成分相关。
Objective To investigate the pharmacodynamic basis of ginseng for preventing nausea and vomit induced by chemotherapy (CINV).Methods Ginseng was first extracted using ultrapure water to gain water extract, and then the water extract was treated by ethanol to obtain alcohol precipitation component, or by resin using water and ethanol (60%, 90%) eluent to acquire water rinse component, 60% ethanol rinse component and 90% ethanol rinse component, respectively. The fingerprints of these different components were established using HPLC. The effect of water extract of ginseng and the different components on the intake of kaolin and feed was conducted in a cisplatin-induced pica model of rats. The correlation between the intake of kaolin and feed and the peak area in the fingerprints was analyzed for preliminary determination of the pharmacodynamic basis of ginseng for preventing CINV.Results The water extract of ginseng and 60% ethanol rinse component significantly reduced the intake of kaolin, compared with the model group, there were significant differences (P ≤ 0.01). Alcohol precipitation component, water rinse component and 90% ethanol rinse component, compared with the model group, there were significant differences (P > 0.05).Conclusion This result indicated that the effective components were included in the 60% ethanol rinse component. The coefficients of spectrum-effect relationship demonstrated that the pharmacodynamic basis of ginseng was related with chromatographic peaks of X1、X3、X4、X5、X6、X7、X8、X9、X10、X11, associated with ginsenosides of Rg1、Re、Rb1.